la historia del arte

Édouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863
Manet is famous for making explicit references to illustrious paintings of the past within his own works, such as Pastoral Concert by Titian (c. 1508). In such works of the past, the women conveyed serve as objects of visual delight; the nude female figures are smooth, curvaceous and idealized, while the clothed male figures revel in the glory of the experience.
However, Édouard Manet confronts the viewer by placing the female nude’s gaze directly in the center of the male activity, focusing straight out upon the voyeur. The voyeuristic culture of Manet’s time was highly popular in visual tradition; idealized and sexualized nudes were consistently painted for the male viewer (or flâneur) to gaze upon and appreciate. This act of a bourgeois male gazing upon a female nude model makes the woman a disposable or replaceable object, rather than an interesting or unique subject. Manet’s female nude not only outs the voyeur by directly acknowledging his gaze, but also calls attention to herself as a painted, artistic body.
It has been suggested that this female model was mostly likely a prostitute, as most artist’s models were at the time. Manet’s painterly expression reminds the viewer that the people and scenery depicted is merely a painted image; the brushstrokes are visible and poignant and the dimensions are suggested, rather than explicitly defined. The woman is the key component to this concept, since she is the focus and the ‘outlier’ within a seemingly classical/traditional scene.
This self-referentiality and self-criticism within visual culture is known as “Greenbergian modernism,” which is a popular philosophy within art criticism that contributes to the theories behind Modernism’s precise beginnings, and also the art that falls within such categories. Self-criticism and a form of acknowledging the artist and the ‘self’ in a painting separates those works that are based upon a simple narrative, because the inclusion of the “self” and art within the art provokes intellectual and philosophical inquiries, discussions and multiple dimensions for artistic culture itself.
[image via.]

Édouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863

Manet is famous for making explicit references to illustrious paintings of the past within his own works, such as Pastoral Concert by Titian (c. 1508). In such works of the past, the women conveyed serve as objects of visual delight; the nude female figures are smooth, curvaceous and idealized, while the clothed male figures revel in the glory of the experience.

However, Édouard Manet confronts the viewer by placing the female nude’s gaze directly in the center of the male activity, focusing straight out upon the voyeur. The voyeuristic culture of Manet’s time was highly popular in visual tradition; idealized and sexualized nudes were consistently painted for the male viewer (or flâneur) to gaze upon and appreciate. This act of a bourgeois male gazing upon a female nude model makes the woman a disposable or replaceable object, rather than an interesting or unique subject. Manet’s female nude not only outs the voyeur by directly acknowledging his gaze, but also calls attention to herself as a painted, artistic body.

It has been suggested that this female model was mostly likely a prostitute, as most artist’s models were at the time. Manet’s painterly expression reminds the viewer that the people and scenery depicted is merely a painted image; the brushstrokes are visible and poignant and the dimensions are suggested, rather than explicitly defined. The woman is the key component to this concept, since she is the focus and the ‘outlier’ within a seemingly classical/traditional scene.

This self-referentiality and self-criticism within visual culture is known as “Greenbergian modernism,” which is a popular philosophy within art criticism that contributes to the theories behind Modernism’s precise beginnings, and also the art that falls within such categories. Self-criticism and a form of acknowledging the artist and the ‘self’ in a painting separates those works that are based upon a simple narrative, because the inclusion of the “self” and art within the art provokes intellectual and philosophical inquiries, discussions and multiple dimensions for artistic culture itself.

[image via.]

Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans, 1849-50
Artist Gustave Courbet’s Realist style makes another appearance in this dark, foreboding display of Courbet’s grand-uncle’s funeral. The funeral’s actual attendants acted as Courbet’s models, and their stiffness or lack of theatricality in expression or movement is inconsistent with the normative images or emotions that are associated with a funeral. The model’s faces are almost expression-less, which takes away the painting’s “painterly-ness,” which causes the viewer to consider truth and reality, rather than artistic tradition.
The painting is in extremely large scale, which was normally reserved for grand history paintings, paintings that depicted major historical, religious or mythological events, rather than personal or societal concepts. Such paintings were also normally reserved for royals and nobles, therefore Courbet intentionally confronts the privileged bourgeoisie class with gloomy images of social reality.
[image via.]

Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans, 1849-50

Artist Gustave Courbet’s Realist style makes another appearance in this dark, foreboding display of Courbet’s grand-uncle’s funeral. The funeral’s actual attendants acted as Courbet’s models, and their stiffness or lack of theatricality in expression or movement is inconsistent with the normative images or emotions that are associated with a funeral. The model’s faces are almost expression-less, which takes away the painting’s “painterly-ness,” which causes the viewer to consider truth and reality, rather than artistic tradition.

The painting is in extremely large scale, which was normally reserved for grand history paintings, paintings that depicted major historical, religious or mythological events, rather than personal or societal concepts. Such paintings were also normally reserved for royals and nobles, therefore Courbet intentionally confronts the privileged bourgeoisie class with gloomy images of social reality.

[image via.]

Gustave Courbet, The Stonebreakers, 1849
Gustave Courbet was born into a wealthy bourgeoisie family in 1819. However, after years of living in a classist, elitist society, he abandoned that glamorous lifestyle to become a bohemian artist in 1841. Courbet painted ordinary places and people to expose the less glamorous, less idealized country life of the poor French class. Normally, such images of the countryside were heavily idealized and picturesque; farms were depicted as beautiful landscapes in which the wealthy class took vacations from the city.
However, Courbet made it a goal to portray and expose the truth to the public, and to express true hardship and emotions, rather than fantasy. Courbet’s famous Stonebreakers painting caused much discomfort to the public, because most audiences were not accustomed to this dirty, exhaustive, and harsh style. Gustave is therefore considered to be the father of the Realist movement in the late 19th century.
[image via]

Gustave Courbet, The Stonebreakers, 1849

Gustave Courbet was born into a wealthy bourgeoisie family in 1819. However, after years of living in a classist, elitist society, he abandoned that glamorous lifestyle to become a bohemian artist in 1841. Courbet painted ordinary places and people to expose the less glamorous, less idealized country life of the poor French class. Normally, such images of the countryside were heavily idealized and picturesque; farms were depicted as beautiful landscapes in which the wealthy class took vacations from the city.

However, Courbet made it a goal to portray and expose the truth to the public, and to express true hardship and emotions, rather than fantasy. Courbet’s famous Stonebreakers painting caused much discomfort to the public, because most audiences were not accustomed to this dirty, exhaustive, and harsh style. Gustave is therefore considered to be the father of the Realist movement in the late 19th century.

[image via]

Paul Cézanne, The Bay of Marseilles, view from L’Estaque, 1885

Paul Cézanne, The Bay of Marseilles, view from L’Estaque, 1885

William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Bathers, 1884
Bouguereau’s portrayal of two nude female bathers is a perfect example of Classical, Romantic tradition that was created during the Impressionist period. In comparison to the Impressionists of his time, Bouguereau created an academic, traditional painting that appealed to purely aesthetic experience, rather than sensational, modern style.

William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Bathers, 1884

Bouguereau’s portrayal of two nude female bathers is a perfect example of Classical, Romantic tradition that was created during the Impressionist period. In comparison to the Impressionists of his time, Bouguereau created an academic, traditional painting that appealed to purely aesthetic experience, rather than sensational, modern style.

Jean Frédéric Bazille, Summer Scene, 1869
Is it possible for one to be ambitious, wanting to make a large-scale history painting that reckons with social phenomena, but also to be ever-more self-referential? This was the challenge that Bazille faced as a modern painter.

Jean Frédéric Bazille, Summer Scene, 1869

Is it possible for one to be ambitious, wanting to make a large-scale history painting that reckons with social phenomena, but also to be ever-more self-referential? This was the challenge that Bazille faced as a modern painter.

Édouard Manet, Le Vieux Musician (The Old Musician), 1862.
Information from the National Gallery of Art website:
"It was the homeland, at ten pence a night, of all the street organ  players, of all the monkey tamers, of all the acrobats and of all the  chimney sweeps that swarm the streets of the town." Such was a  contemporary description of the neighborhood of Petite Pologne, close to  Edouard Manet’s studio.
Here Manet has painted characters from this area he called “a  picturesque slum." Most are real individuals. The seated musician is  Jean Lagrène, leader of a local gypsy band who earned his living as an  organ grinder and artist’s model. The man in the top hat is Colardet, a  rag-picker and ironmonger. At the right a man named Guéroult is cast as  the "wandering Jew," the prototypical outsider. In their poses and  dress, several figures recall those of Velázquez or the peasants painted by French seventeenth-century artist Louis Le Nain, whose works Manet would also have seen during his studies in the Louvre.
Impassive and silent, these people from the margins of Parisian life  are restricted to the narrow plane of the foreground. Presented with  neutral detachment, they do not interact, appearing equally unconnected  to each other and the vague, undefined setting they inhabit. The urchin  and rag picker look toward the seated musician, but he is unaware,  focused instead on the viewer outside the picture. The emotional  blankness of Manet’s painting felt "modern" to contemporary viewers."
[nationalgallery.]

Édouard Manet, Le Vieux Musician (The Old Musician), 1862.

Information from the National Gallery of Art website:

"It was the homeland, at ten pence a night, of all the street organ players, of all the monkey tamers, of all the acrobats and of all the chimney sweeps that swarm the streets of the town." Such was a contemporary description of the neighborhood of Petite Pologne, close to Edouard Manet’s studio.

Here Manet has painted characters from this area he called “a picturesque slum." Most are real individuals. The seated musician is Jean Lagrène, leader of a local gypsy band who earned his living as an organ grinder and artist’s model. The man in the top hat is Colardet, a rag-picker and ironmonger. At the right a man named Guéroult is cast as the "wandering Jew," the prototypical outsider. In their poses and dress, several figures recall those of Velázquez or the peasants painted by French seventeenth-century artist Louis Le Nain, whose works Manet would also have seen during his studies in the Louvre.

Impassive and silent, these people from the margins of Parisian life are restricted to the narrow plane of the foreground. Presented with neutral detachment, they do not interact, appearing equally unconnected to each other and the vague, undefined setting they inhabit. The urchin and rag picker look toward the seated musician, but he is unaware, focused instead on the viewer outside the picture. The emotional blankness of Manet’s painting felt "modern" to contemporary viewers."

[nationalgallery.]

close-up of The Adoration of the Lamb, The Ghent Altarpiece.

close-up of The Adoration of the Lamb, The Ghent Altarpiece.